Jody Armour

Board Member





At the request of the US Department of State and European Embassies, Professor Armour has toured major universities in Europe to speak about social justice as well as Hip Hop culture and the law. His work on the intersection of these topics grew into a unique interdisciplinary and multimedia analysis of social justice and linguistics, titled Race, Rap and Redemption, produced by USC alumna J. M. Morris, and featuring performance by Ice Cube, Mayda del Valle, Saul Williams, Lula Washington Dance Theatre, Macy Gray Music Academy Orchestra, and Mailon Rivera.

Armour earned his AB degree in Sociology at Harvard University and his JD degree with honors from Boalt Hall Law School at UC Berkeley. Prior to joining USC, he was an associate at Morrison & Foerster, Kirkpatrick and Lockhart and taught at UC Berkeley’s Boalt Hall, Indiana University and the University of Pittsburgh.

Armour currently teaches students a diverse array of subjects, including Criminal Law, Torts, and Stereotypes and Prejudice: The Role of the Cognitive Unconscious in the Rule of Law.


  • Negrophobia & Reasonable Racism: The Hidden Costs of Being Black in America (New York University Press, 1997). 

Articles and Book Chapters

  • "Where Bias Lives in the Criminal Law and its Processes: How Judges and Jurors Socially Construct Black Criminals," 45 American Journal of Criminal Law 203 (2018). - (PDF)

  • “Nigga Theory: Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity in the Substantive Criminal Law” 12 Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 9 (Fall 2014). - (Hein)

  • “Race Ipsa Loquitur: Of Reasonable Racists, Intelligent Bayesians, and Involuntary Negrophobes,” in Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic, editors, Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge, (Temple University Press, 2013).

  • “Race Ipsa Loquitur: Of Reasonable Racists, Intelligent Bayesians, and Involuntary Negrophobes,” in Sanford H. Kadish, Stephen J. Schulhofer, Carol S. Steiker, and Rachel E. Barkow, eds, Criminal Law and Its Processes: Cases and Materials, (Wolters Kluwer, 2012).

  • "Toward a Tort-Based Theory of Civil Rights, Civil Liberties, and Racial Justice," 38 Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review 1467 (Spring 2005). - (Hein)

  • "Interpretive Construction, Systemic Consistency, and Criterial Norms in Tort Law," 54 Vanderbilt Law Review 1157 (2001). - (Hein)

  • "Bring the Noise," 40 Boston College Law Review 733 (May 1999). - (Hein)

  • "Color-Consciousness in the Courtroom," 28 Southwestern University Law Review 281 (1999). - (Hein)

  • "Critical Race Feminism: Old Wine in a New Bottle or New Legal Genre?," 7 Southern California Review of Law and Women's Studies 431 (1998). - (Hein)

  • "Hype and Reality in Affirmative Action (Affirmative Action: Diversity of Opinions)," 68 University of Colorado Law Review 1173 (1997). - (Hein)

  • "Just Deserts: Narrative, Perspective, Choice, and Blame (Self-Defense and Relations of Domination: Moral and Legal Perspectives on Battered Women Who Kill)," 57 University of Pittsburgh Law Review 525 (1996). - (Hein)

  • "Stereotypes and Prejudice: Helping Legal Decision-makers Break the Prejudice Habit," 83 California Law Review 733 (1995).  - (Hein)

  • "Race Ipsa Loquitur: Of Reasonable Racists, Intelligent Bayesians, and Involuntary Negrophobes," 46 Stanford Law Review 781 (1994). - (Hein)

Other Works

  • Plays

    • Race, Rap, and Redemption, Visions & Voices 2007
      Live Performances by Ice Cube, Saul Williams, Mayda Del Valle, Macy Gray’s Youth Orchestra, The Lula Washington Dance Theatre, and The Spirit of Troy (TMB).

    • Race, Rap and Redemption Reprise 2008
      Abbreviated Performance featuring The Lulu Washington Dance Theatre for Incoming USC Freshmen: Writing Requirement.

    • What’s Race Got to Do with It? October 9, 2013
      Multimedia Performance of Nigga Theory’s Conceptual Framework for California Lawyers & Judges for Continuing Legal Education (CLE) credits.

  • Documentaries

    • Nigga Theory: A Brief Exploration, Directed by Khin-May Lwin, 2015                         
      A cinematic expression of my critical race scholarship. Selected for the American Documentary Film Festival, Palm Springs, March 2015 and for Dokufest - International Documentary and Short Film Festival, Prizren (Kosovo), August 2015.

    • Freeway: Crack in the System, 2015                          
      Includes scenes of Award-winning Director Marc Levin and former drug kingpin Freeway Rick Ross joining my seminar to discuss the causes and consequences of the crack plague.